A Brief History of Peony
When contemplating the word "peony," love, prosperity, and honor instantly come to mind. These three concepts perfectly embody the essence of this remarkable flower, whose myriad shades and captivating fragrance have enchanted emperors and nobles throughout various eras and epochs.
Our journey to explore the peony led us to discover a versatile plant whose blossoms are among the most revered in the world today, owing to their stunning appearance, rich historical significance, and alluring perfume.
The peony holds a profound place in the annals of many civilizations, and its name and image have served as a source of inspiration for enduring legends and symbols that continue to be cherished in contemporary times.
Peony: The flower that symbolizes compassion
The peony, a magnificent plant and the sole member of the Ranunculaceae family, boasts remarkable longevity, thanks to its robust, coiled roots that possess an exceptional ability to adapt to various soil types, including those prone to drought.
With a few simple guidelines followed, the peony proves to be one of the most effortless ornamental plants to cultivate.
Renowned for its vibrant and captivating blooms, the peony graces our gardens each year with a burst of color. During the months of April to May, peonies around the world showcase large, mesmerizing flowers adorned with 5 to 10 petals each. The color spectrum of the peony is vast, ranging from pristine white to delightful "bubble-gum" pink, as well as striking crimson and even exotic shades of yellow, depending on the specific species. However, one constant feature of the peony is its lush emerald green leaves.
Legends of Peony: The flower of Gods and Emperors
The peony holds a deeper significance beyond its aesthetic appeal, as it is intertwined with two distinct legends originating from far-reaching lands: China and Greece. The very name "Peony" is derived from "Paean," the Greek god associated with medicine and healing, often referred to as the "physician" of the Greek deities.
One legend traces back to an event in Homer's Iliad, where Zeus transforms Paean into a flower. This transformation occurs after Paean utilizes the potent healing properties of a plant's roots to treat the severe wounds inflicted upon the god Pluto during a confrontation with Hercules.
In order to safeguard Paean from the potential wrath of his mentor Asclepius, Zeus bestows immortality upon the "divine healer," metamorphosing him into the Peony plant. The plant's roots, revered for their remarkable medicinal properties, continue to be utilized in various forms of medicine to this day, carrying on the legacy of Paean's healing abilities.
An immortal plant whose patience is infinite
The second legend hails from the peony's birthplace, China, where it held the esteemed title of the "Queen of Flowers" even two millennia ago, captivating the hearts and imaginations of Asian cultures, particularly in Chinese imperial society. But how did it come to earn such a regal designation?
According to the legend, on a chilly winter morning, a whimsical yet strikingly beautiful empress showcased her magical powers by commanding all the flowers in the imperial garden to bloom. However, there was one flower, the peony, that dared to defy her authority out of fear of incurring her wrath. Astonished by the flower's audacity, the empress ordered her attendants to banish all peonies to the frigid and distant borders of the empire.
To everyone's surprise, the peony thrived in the harsh and unforgiving environment, flourishing with vibrant and captivating blossoms. Witnessing the peony's resilience and determination, the empress was moved by its spirit and relentlessness. In recognition of its extraordinary qualities, she rescinded its exile and bestowed upon it the grand title of the "Queen of All Flowers."
Since that fateful moment, the peony has been celebrated as a symbol of beauty, resilience, and regal elegance, forever etching its place as the esteemed monarch among flowers in Chinese folklore and cultural lore.
Peonies have been cultivated for over 4,000 years. They were originally observed in the eastern portion of the world, and as rulers transferred their courts to other locations, they spread throughout the world. Around 700 A.D., the plant arrived in Asia. The peony plant was prized not just for its beauty but also for its medical capabilities by various cultures.
The many portions of the peony were thought to have medicinal properties all over Europe and Asia. They were used to alleviate bladder and stomach problems, as well as various interior disorders and even night tremors. Flower petals are also used by the Chinese in their meals and drinks to give them a distinct flavor.
The peony plant was seen as a symbol of prosperity, beauty, and health by Christians during the Middle Ages. The seeds and roots were utilized in herbal drinks and medications to treat a range of illnesses from the inside out. Many of these Christians proceeded to cultivate hybrids of the plants in the hopes of improving their healing properties. Many of these hybrids can now be seen in gardens and bouquets all over the world.
Peonies were known as the Queen of Herbs in ancient Greece, and the King of Flowers in ancient China. The therapeutic qualities of the alkaloids and glucosides contained in peony roots are now being researched by scientists. Herbaceous, Tree Peonies, and Intersectional peonies are the three types of peonies (Itoh). Perennials, herbaceous peonies die back to the ground each fall. Tree peonies are a type of shrub peony that loses their leaves in the fall. Intersectional peonies, also known as Itoh peonies, are a hybrid of herbaceous and tree peonies.
Dr. Toichi Itoh, a Japanese horticulturist, initially developed them in the 1940s. Unfortunately, Dr. Itoh died before his creations could bloom, and the rest of the world was nearly completely unaware of this new species of peony due to the Cold War that followed World War II. Fortunately, Itoh's work was followed by an American gardener called Louis Smirnoff, who bought some of the original intersectional peonies from Itoh's widow. Many other types of peonies from China and Japan became available for purchase around the world in the 1980s and 1990s.
Peony’s Healing Properties
Peonies have a rich history of cultivation spanning over 4,000 years. Originally observed in the eastern regions of the world, they gradually spread as rulers and their courts relocated to different territories. By around 700 A.D., peonies had reached Asia, where they were highly prized for both their beauty and medicinal properties across various cultures.
Different parts of the peony plant were believed to possess medicinal qualities throughout Europe and Asia. They were used to alleviate ailments such as bladder and stomach problems, internal disorders, and even night tremors. In Chinese cuisine, the flower petals were incorporated into meals and beverages to impart a unique flavor.
During the Middle Ages, Christians regarded the peony plant as a symbol of prosperity, beauty, and good health. Its seeds and roots were used in herbal remedies and tonics to treat a wide range of ailments. Inspired by its healing properties, many Christians began cultivating hybrid varieties of peonies in hopes of enhancing their therapeutic benefits. Today, these hybrids can be found in gardens and floral arrangements worldwide.
Peonies held the title of the "Queen of Herbs" in ancient Greece and the "King of Flowers" in ancient China, underscoring their esteemed status. Scientists are currently researching the medicinal properties of the alkaloids and glucosides found in peony roots.
There are three main types of peonies: herbaceous peonies, tree peonies, and intersectional peonies (also known as Itoh peonies). Herbaceous peonies are perennials that die back to the ground each fall. Tree peonies are shrub-like peonies that shed their leaves in autumn. Intersectional peonies, developed by Japanese horticulturist Dr. Toichi Itoh in the 1940s, are hybrids of herbaceous and tree peonies.
Unfortunately, Dr. Itoh passed away before witnessing his creations bloom, and due to the geopolitical tensions of the Cold War following World War II, his new peony species remained relatively unknown to the rest of the world. Fortunately, American gardener Louis Smirnoff acquired some of the original intersectional peonies from Dr. Itoh's widow and brought them to wider attention. In the 1980s and 1990s, numerous other peony varieties from China and Japan became available for purchase worldwide, further expanding the diversity of peonies in cultivation.